Maximum Temperature during May-June is 48°C, Minimum Temperature during January is 23°C, Rainfall - 26-54 mm
Maximum Temperature during May-June is 48°C, Minimum Temperature during January is 23°C, Rainfall - 26-54 mm
Uttar Pradesh is bounded on the north by Nepal and Tibet and, in India, by Himachal Pradesh on the northwest, Haryana state and the union territory of Delhi on the west, Rajasthan state on the southwest, Madhya Pradesh state on the south, and Bihar on the east.
The land of supreme art and superior artisans, Uttar Pradesh, has to its name some of the most renowned art-tradition centers of India. Patronized by the great Moghul emperors- Akbar, Shah Jahan, Farrukhsiyar and Dara Sikoh- art forms still continue to be pedestalised in the state. They promoted various art traditions at the time of their reign which were carried forward to the next generation by the Nawabs of Awadh. This is why every town, small or big, is known for one or the other craft here and the same tradition is found in Benaras as well as Agra. The Zari works, done on different items such as drapes, textiles and artifacts, have brought fame to Varanasi or Benaras. The Zari done on sarees stand prominent among all others thereby making them one among the most frequently shopped items. Chikankari, embroidery on Muslin, is yet another masterpiece of the artists of Uttar Pradesh. It took its shape in the courts of the Nawabs and so Lucknow continues to be the centre of this. On the other hand, Agra is famous for another complex variety of embroidery known as Zardozi which is 3-dimensional in pattern. Distinct brassware with massive decorative patterns is to be found in Moradabad which is famous for its brasswares so much so that it’s called ‘the City of Brass’. The city is famous world-wide for its busts and miniatures. The marble artifacts of Agra too do not lag behind in its fame and are a major export item. The miniature replicas of the Taj Mahal and the inlay works done here are demanded in countries across boundaries. Firozabad, for the manufacture of bangles, has become synonymous to the same but is also known for its glassware such as chandeliers and cutleries. Bhadohi, near Benaras, has under its name some of the finest silk carpets all over South Asia. The Persian patterns on them are an addition to its glory and are a major export item. The Hand Printed items found in Farrukhabad are famous too. The twin patterns of ‘Polka Dots’ and ‘Tree Wisdom’,upon which these printings are done, are a craze among the Europeans.
The diversity that Uttar Pradesh exudes in terms of its Culture, Region and People is reflected back in the costumes that the people wear. Basically, the geographical conditions determine the costumes of the region as the inhabitants go for the clothes that would most suit the prevailing climate. The men and women wear different costumes in urban and the village areas. The village men is usually clad in a “Kurta” (a kind of a loose and long shirt) or a “Ganji” (half shirt), complemented by a “Dhoti”. “Angaucha” (scarf) finds place in almost every dress which is sometimes supplemented by a cap or a turban. As we move towards the urban counterparts, we find the males, especially the working ones, wearing western clothes with Bushcoats and shirts with trousers. The village women are dressed in a “Saluka”( a kind of a loose blouse) with a “Lehenga” and an “Orhni” to veil their heads and sometimes till the upper portion of the body. “Sharars” and “Gararas” are the two other types that women wear. These are trouser-like dresses which are flairy and parallel. But most of the time the women are clad in sarees, the basic dress form that they are comfortable in. Women folk continuously experiment with the way the saree is draped and sometimes with the ‘Pallus’. The Muslim folks have their own elegant style of dressing up. They go for a Pyjama or a Lungi, with a Kurta, sometimes supplemented by Sherwani or a shirt. A cap or a turban forms an essential part of their dressing. Muslim women get dressed in the same way that the Hindu women do. Pyjama-Kurta, Orhani or a Dupatta are the basic dresses they go for.
Uttar Pradesh exudes immense vivaciousness in its culture owing to amalgamation of the innumerous cultures that the historical rulers brought with them. Consequently, the songs and dances, being inextricably linked to any culture, are vibrant too. The Classical and the Folk constitute the Dance of Uttar Pradesh. Kathak is one of the seminal classical dance forms in India and so it is the same in Uttar Pradesh. The origin of this dance form again can be traced back to the courts of the Nawabs and the Emperors. Its journey to the masses is a long one and in this process this state has come up with some of the dignified exponents of the Kathak dance. Originated at the mythological period when Lord Krishna was at the seat of everyone’s hearts, Ras-lila and Charkula still continue to be the two dominant forms of Folk dance. Ras-lila, an amorous form of dance, celebrates the love of Lord Krishna and Radha. Whereas Charkula stands for the birth of Radha and is performed on religious and social occasions. On the other hand, the tribal population relishes Karma, the tribal dance form, popular in the Bundelkhand region. The local deities, also worshipped by the tribes of Madhya Pradesh, Gondwana, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh, are invoked through this dance form.
Kumbh Mela, Mahakumbh Mela, Bateshwar Fair, Kampil Fair, Magh Mela, Deva Mela and Ramnavmi Mela are few prominent fairs of Uttar Pradesh.
Holi, Rama Navami, Vijayadashami, Vasant Panchami, Makar Sankranti, Ganga Mahotsava, Janmashtami, Diwali, Maha Shivaratri, Moharram, Bakreed, Mahavir Jayanti, Barah Wafat, Eid, Chhath Puja and Hanuman Jayanti all are celebrated in Uttar Pradesh.
True to the old proverb, languages really change every mile in Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh rests in the core of the Hindi-Heartland along with other states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, where Hindi is the language spoken by the majority of the population. Being the Lingua Franca of the state, the accent of Hindi that is found here is the standard one, the accent that of the Khadi boli. Besides Hindi, Hindustani too is spoken by the people of Uttar Pradesh. It is the language of the common people whereas Hindi is used for administrative and official purposes. Hindustani has in it various Urdu loan words and this mixed nature of the language makes it all the more popular among the masses as it lives on the tongues of everyone. Awadhi is another major language of the state, spoken mainly in the Awadh (Oudh) region. This dialect of Hindi is a fusion of Urdu and Khadi Boli. Some of the seminal literary pieces in Hindi were written in this language in the ancient period including the Raamcharitmanas of Tulsidas. It has been propagated by the sufi poets of the times past and Amir Khusro stands prominent among them. It is generally spoken in the regions like Lucknow, Faizabad, Rae Bareli, Barabanki, Sitapur, Kanpur and so on. Bhojpuri and Braj Bhasha are among the other languages spoken across the state. Braj Bhasha, a very sweet to hear language, is spoken in regions like Mathura and Vrindavan. Some minor languages spoken in the state include, Bundeli, Gujari, Kannauji and Sadhukkadi.
The music of Uttar Pradesh is unmatched in its variety. Classical, folk and semi-classical, all assemble together to form the enticing music of the state. Some of the most exponents of music belong to this state. The ‘Purbaiya Ang’ genre of Indian Classical Music was born here and Benaras remained the centre of this unit for years. Eastern Uttar Pradesh can be called the progenitor of most of the genres of folk music. The genres are divided under two categories- the foremost of them being the Mood based “Birha”, a lamentation for separation of the newly-weds because the male had to go far for earning livelihood. The other two are season based. Chaiti, usually sung in the ‘Chait’ month are basically songs on the quarrels between the beloved and her lover. Whereas ‘Kajari’ can be heard in the month of monsoon and the lamentation is less sensuous than ‘Birha’. ‘Ghazal’ overpowers any other genre of music in the Awadh region. Ghazal unites various verses in a certain format of balanced Weight and Meter. Thumari, basically a genre belonging to the courts of the emperors, has now surpassed any other form in popularity. ‘Qawwali’, a pan-world genre, is sung on the tombs of the Sufi saints and its loud vocal takes the audience to a state of the trance. Imam Hussein’s (Prophet Muhammad’s grandson) martyrdom has found voice in the form of ‘Marsiya’. It is a popular form among the Shia Muslims.
Being the most populous state of the country, Uttar Pradesh has always been a juncture of the people belonging to different religious communities. The majority of the population consists of people of the Indo-Aryan race. Interestingly enough, the three universally recognized upper strata of the society- the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas- constitute a very minor section of the population. The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes along with some of the backward classes form the majority of the social stratification. These people are mainly dependent on agriculture and form the landless labourer’s class. The Muslim community too is found in a major portion in Uttar Pradesh. The Hindus form a major part of the society and have been influencing the economic and political scenario since ages. The orthodox Hindu community is basically classified into five broad classes-the Kshatriyas, the Brahmins, the Vaishyas, the Shudras and the untouchables. Different occupations also gave rise to many classes like ‘Nai’ (the barbers), ‘Dhobi’ (the washerman), and ‘Lohar’ (the blacksmith) and so on. ‘Khatris’, ‘Bhumihars’ and ‘Bishnois’ are some of the other castes found here. The Muslim community is unevenly distributed all over the state. The Shias and the Sunnis constitute the major population. The Shias dominate the regions like Lucknow, Amroha and Jaunpur out of the many places like Meerut, Rohilkhasnd and Ghazipur where mostly the Muslim population lives. Nowadays, due to Ashrafization, the traditionl has lost many of its orthodox values. The tribes of the state aassemble in Uttarkashi, Chamoli , Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Hardwar, Almora and so on. The people over here are hospitable and extend a hearty welcome to all. Their stress is always on “Izzat” i.e. Respect and have preserved the traditional values of “Atithi Devo Bhava” i.e. they give the designation of God to their guests.
Someshwar Mahadev Temple, Hanuman Garhi, Chakra Harji Vishnu Temple, Suraj Khund Temple, Mahalakshmi Temple, Jama Masjid Agra, Nag Basuki Temple, Hanuman Garhi, Babri Masjid - Ram Janam Bhumi, Gorakhnath Temple, Lal Darwaza Masjid, Trilochan Mahadev Temple, Jama Masjid Lucknow, Vishwanath Temple Varanasi, Tulsi Manas Temple Varanasi and Govind Dev Temple Vrindavan are the main places of worship in Uttar Pradesh.
People of Uttar Pradesh are great foodies and every festival brings with it an array of mouth-watering dishes. Being a melting point of different cultures, Uttar Pradesh reflects the same in its cuisine. Seeing the vastness of the area of the state and variety of the cuisine, the state is divided into 3 parts- Western UP, Eastern UP and Oudh. The Hindu communities prefer to side with vegetarian food and their daily meals include Dal, Chapati, Rice and Subzi with some sweets or Dahi (curd) to finish the meal. Kachoris and Pooris are longed for on special occasions. The Muslim community relish non-vegetarian food. Their meal generally constitutes a platter of irresistible Kebabs, Curries, breads and Biryanis. The Oudh region witnesses profound Mughal influence on its cuisine and adorns one’s taste buds with the best of the Kulcha-Nihari, Biryani and Kebabs such as Shami and Galawati of Lucknow. Kakori( Seekh Kabab introduced by the Mughals) and Boti Kababs are well-known in the Kanpur region. Tahri and Nargisi Kofta are the major vegetarian dishes of the place. Zamindoz and Rampuri Rohu dominate the western part of Uttar Pradesh. Both of these are made with fish. In Kebabs, Shab Deg and Pasanda Kebab stand foremost. For the vegetarians, Paneer Pasanda is a treat. Tahri as well as Reshmi Kebabs dominate the meals of the Eastern part of the state. Everyone longs for Murg Mussallam here and its fame has spread far and wide. Besides all these, it has an enormous variety of sweets to gift to its people and visitors as well. Petha of Agra, Peda of Mathura, Khurchan, Lassi and the Shahi Tukda are the most favoured ones. At the same time, one cannot but think about the Benarasi Paan when it comes to Uttar Pradesh which is so popular that it lives on every one’s mouth, whether it be literally or in the form of songs.
Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Akbar's Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri, Itmad-Ud-Daulah, Dayal Bagh, Chattar Manzil, Rumi Darwaza, Residency, Chhota Imambara and Bara Imambara are the must-visit places in Uttar Pradesh.
Gulab Bari, Botanical Gardens, Dayalbagh Gardens Agra, Buddha Park, Japanese Garden, Sikandar Bagh, Banarasi Bagh, Shah Jahan Park and Deer Park or Isipatana Sarnath are few popular Parks and Gardens that are located in Uttar Pradesh.