Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park is situated in East Java, Indonesia. It was declared a national park in 1982 and has been under conservation since 1919. This conservation area has a sand sea, across which stands the caldera of ancient Tengger Volcano. Over the years, four new volcanoes have emerged from this ancient one. The highest mountain of Java, Mount Semeru, is also located in this national park.
The ancient Tengger Volcano has five other volcanoes inside its caldera. These are Mount Bromo, Mount Batok, Mount Kursi, Mount Watangan and Mount Widodaren. Out of these, only Mount Batok is inactive. Tengger Sand Sea and steep crater walls surround these five volcanoes. Semeru Group is another volcanic complex, located in the southern region of this national park.
The forest area can be classified into three zones, differentiated by the height and temperature. These are:
Sub-montane zone (750–1,500 m) - It is a tropical rainforest region, located in the southern, eastern and western areas of Semeru. Many species of plants are found here along with liana trees. This zone also has 225 species of orchids.
Montane zone (1,500–2,440 m) - Forming the only known desert-like area in Indonesia, this zone has a reduced plant life. Certain wooden plants and bottom plants can be found here.
Subalpine zone (above 2,400 m) - The types of flora covering this region are mentinggi gunung (Vaccinium varingifolium) and cemara (Casuarina junghuhniana). Kemlandingan gunung (Albizia lophantha) and Javanese Edelweiss. Beyond the altitude 3100 m, there is no plant life and the zone is covered in loose sandstones.
Flora and Fauna
This region offers protection to some of the endangered species of plants belonging to the Fagaceae, Moraceae, Sterculiaceae, and Javanese Edelweiss family. 137 species of birds, 22 species of mammals and 4 species of reptiles inhibit this national park.
Tengger people live in and around this area. They are believed to be descendents of the Hindu Majapahit Empire, who were forced to move to these hills after the coming of Muslim Madurese in the 19th century.
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